The twenty six papers in this special issue focus on the technologies of hyperspectral remote sensing (HRS)and imaging spectroscopy. HRS has emerged as a powerful tool to understand phenomena at local and global scales by virtue of imaging through a diverse range of platforms, including terrestrial in-situ imaging platforms, unmanned and manned aerial vehicles, and satellite platforms. By virtue of imaging over a wide range of spectral wavelengths, it is possible to characterize object specific properties very accurately. As a result, hyperspectral imaging (also known as imaging spectroscopy) has gained popularity for a wide variety of applications, including environment monitoring, precision agriculture, mineralogy, forestry, urban planning, and defense applications. The increased analysis capability comes at a cost—there are a variety of challenges that must be overcome for robust image analysis of such data, including high dimensionality, limited sample size for training supervised models, noise and atmospheric affects, mixed pixels, etc. The papers in this issue represent some of the recent developments in image analysis algorithms and unique applications of hyperspectral imaging data.